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why was the flight to varennes important 0

The royal family was confined to the Tuileries Palace. From this point forward, the abolition of the monarchy and the establishment of a republic became an ever-increasing possibility. [17] This was the event that sounded the death knell for the monarch.[18]. list the fundamental causes of the flight to Varennes was? The king was arrested at 11pm on June 21st and dispatched back to Paris at 7am the following morning. 'The King does not think it would be possible to govern so large and important a kingdom as France by the means esablished by the National Assembly such as they exist at present'. His Majesty was treated, as Pétion noted, like nothing had happened: “After a few minutes, we moved [to] the king’s apartments. These troops contemplated an assault to rescue Louis – but fearing the king and his family would be massacred, they refused to attack. The Flight to Varennes, June 20, 1791: The Flight to Varennes served as a major journee because it showed the National Assembly as well as the French people, that Louis XVI could no longer be trusted. The Flight to Varennes, or the royal family’s unsuccessful escape from Paris during the night of June 20-21, 1791, undermined the credibility of the king as a constitutional monarch and eventually led to the escalation of the crisis and the execution of Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette. All these delays put then at least 90 minutes behind schedule. Mirabeau’s advisory notes to the king, discovered after his death in April 1791, were comprehensive and astute. The Royals felt like virtual prisoners in Paris- if prisoners were allowed to live in grand Palaces and eat the best food. The Flight to Varennes and its Consequences. [2], The king's flight was traumatic for France, inciting reactions ranging from anxiety to violence and panic. They were located and detained the following day and returned to the capital. Exhibits. It was now no longer possible to pretend that the reforms of the French Revolution had been made with the free consent of the king. In May 1790, he signed a secret deal with the crown, agreeing to work for the king’s benefit in the National Constituent Assembly. It is often said that Fersen and the queen were lovers, however, evidence for this is circumstantial. 5. Another factor in Louis’ decision to flee Paris was his devout religious faith. With the dauphin's governess, the Marquise de Tourzel, taking on the role of a Russian baroness, the queen and the king's sister Madame Élisabeth playing the roles of governess and nurse respectively, the king a valet, and the royal children her daughters, the royal family made their escape leaving the Tuileries Palace at about midnight. HistoryMaker. His plans were shrouded in secrecy, but he probably intended to flee to Montmedy in Lorraine, where he hoped to gain the protection of the royalist military commander and negotiate the terms of the new constitution. Louis XVI on his motives for the flight to Varennes (1791) $32.75 + Free Shipping. during his flight from Paris to Montmédy was one of the most important events in the history of the French Revolution, and probably one of the most important in the history of France. This event was a turning point in the revolution because it exposed the untrustworthiness of the king and the unworkability of the newly devised constitution. The royal family was returned to Paris and reinstalled at the Tuileries Palace, this time under a more visible guard. On the night of the 20/21st June 1791, King Louis XVI attempted to flee in an event that was later named the flight to Varennes. During the night of 20–21 June 1791, French King Louis XVI (1754 – 1793), his wife, Marie-Antoinette (1755 – 1793), their children, Louis-Charles (1785 – 1795), the dauphin, or heir apparent, and his sister Marie-Thérèse (1778 – 1851), the king’s sister Élisabeth of France (1764 – 1794) attempted to escape France. The king and his family were arrested at Varennes and returned to Paris. The question of what to do with the king after Varennes widened the gulf between political moderates and radical republicans. Henri Grégoire on the flight to Varennes (1791) The king's attempted flight provoked charges of treason that ultimately led to his execution in 1793. Princess Marie-Thérèse’s account of the flight to Varennes (1791) The Paris sections and radical journalists demanded the immediate abolition of the monarchy and the creation of a republic. 4. The Assembly responds to the flight to Varennes (1791) They escaped only as far as the small town of Varennes-en-Argonne, where they were arrested after havi… For more info, visit our FAQ page or Terms of Use. The flight to Varennes refers to the royal family's failed attempt to escape Paris in June 1791. He appeared twice, on 11 and 23 December, before the National Convention. Discuss how different interest groups in France would respond on his return – what options were open to the Assembly? [6] De Bouillé himself had shown energy in suppressing a serious mutiny in Nancy in 1790. The court expectation was that "numerous faithful subjects of all classes" would then rally to demand the restoration of the rights of the throne and that order would be restored without the need for civil war or foreign invasion. The outbreak of the war with Austria in April 1792 and the publication of a manifesto by the Prussian commander, Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick, threatened the destruction of Paris if the safety of the royal family was again endangered. On 3 December, it was decided that Louis XVI, who together with his family had been imprisoned since August, should be brought to trial for treason. The king was appalled by the Civil Constitution of the Clergy and its implications for the church in France. Many were stunned not just by the king’s attempt to flee – but how the National Constituent Assembly responded to it. Did You Know? Why did the flight to Varennes provoke such a strong reaction? The king’s escape was delayed by a nighttime visit from the Marquis de Lafayette and Jean-Sylvain Bailly, who kept him talking longer than expected. Other Sellers on Amazon. Show short video clip about the Flight to Varennes. They planned to escape to Austria and then recapture the French crown through foreign assistance. At Châlons townspeople reportedly greeted and applauded the royal party. The royal family were arrested at Varennes and returned to Paris. The king and his family were eventually arrested in the town of Varennes, 50 km (31 miles) from their ultimate destination, the heavily fortified royalist citadel of Montmédy. One was the advice of Honore Mirabeau. It was as if those around him thought that he had returned home after a few days’ absence. [7] By Marisa Linton, published 9th February 2017. what was the response of the people of france. The royal flight to Varennes took place on June 20th, 1791. This site is created and maintained by Alpha History. Flight to Varennes. 2. The royal family had been brought to Paris after the events of the 5 th October 1789 when a mob stormed the Versailles Palace. For: - His reluctancy to concede reforms - Flight to Varennes Against: While the Assembly had every intention of creating a limited or constitutional monarchy, after June 1791, such an idea became increasingly suspect. Satirical print reading “ King Janus, or the man with two faces,” illustrating the shift in public opinion of Louis XVI after his flight to Varennes, 1791-1792 (Stanford University Libraries) (), and a cartoon of the king wearing a revolutionary Phrygian cap and pretending to support the revolution, while secretly planning to launch a resistance against it, 1792 (). (Louis XVI) * shows Louis had failed to understand the popularity of the changes which had taken Mirabeau’s political vision for France, however, was fundamentally conservative. Furthermore, he overestimated popular support for the traditional monarchy, mistakenly believing only Parisian radicals supported the revolution and that the populace as a whole opposed it. [4], The intended goal of the unsuccessful flight was to provide the king with greater freedom of action and personal security than was possible in Paris. Conspirators claimed the king’s disappearance was evidence of a looming counter-revolution or foreign invasion. William Doyle. A large contingent of Royalist troops arrived as the king’s carriage was about to depart Varennes. Few people in France had seen the king personally but his image was printed on the currency. Prompted by Marie Antoinette, Louis rejected the advice of the moderate constitutionalists, led by Antoine Barnave, to fully implement the Constitution of 1791, which he had sworn to maintain. Home. the royals left the tuileries at midnight and were arrested in Varennes and returned to Paris where they were met with silent, sullen crowds of people. On the way back, they were jeered and insulted by the people as never before. Add to folder. Whatever public affection the king had enjoyed in early 1791 was shattered by the events of June 20th and 21st. A contingent of National Guard was immediately dispatched in pursuit of the royal family. Fersen had urged the use of two light carriages that could have made the 200-mile journey to Montmédy relatively quickly. His working alliance with the National Constituent Assembly and his acceptance of the Constitution of 1791 were exposed as fraudulent. Add to My HA. Date accessed: January 14, 2021 [9], Prodded by the queen, Louis committed himself and his family to a disastrous attempt of escape from the capital to the eastern frontier on 21 June 1791. The royal Flight to Varennes (French: Fuite à Varennes) during the night of 20–21 June 1791 was a significant episode in the French Revolution in which King Louis XVI of France, his queen Marie Antoinette, and their immediate family unsuccessfully attempted to escape from Paris in order to initiate a counter-revolution at the head of loyal troops under royalist officers concentrated at Montmédy near the frontier. This event was a turning point in the revolution because it exposed the untrustworthiness of the king and the unworkability of the newly devised constitution. This would mean receiving communion from a constitutional priest. during his flight from Paris to Montmédy was one of the most important events in the history of the French Revolution, and probably one of the most important in the history of France. He was so phlegmatic and tranquil, as if nothing was out of the ordinary. When the royal family finally returned under guard to Paris, the revolutionary crowd met the royal carriage with uncharacteristic silence and consequently, complete shock rippled throughout the crowd at the sight of their king. In seeing the king, in observing him closely, it was impossible to guess that something momentous had just happened. The flight to Varennes describes the royal family’s failed attempt to escape their house arrest in Paris in June 1791. The royal flight to Varennes took place on June 20th, 1791. The Royals felt like virtual prisoners in Paris- if prisoners were allowed to live in grand Palaces and eat the best food. The king’s failed attempt to escape Paris was dubbed the flight to Varennes (something of a misnomer given the real objective of his flight was Montmedy). Appalled by the growing radicalism of the revolution, particularly its attempts to regulate and control the church, Louis XVI agreed to abscond from the city. Discuss how different interest groups in France would respond on his return – what options were open to the Assembly? By this stage, the escape party was some four hours behind schedule – but with around half the journey to Montmedy completed, the royals were confident their plan would succeed. Nine months later, Marie Antoinette was also convicted of treason, and was beheaded on 16 October. It was further delayed near the city gates by a wedding party. The distance between Paris and Montmedy was around 200 miles (325 kilometres). From the autumn of 1791 on, the king tied his hopes of political salvation to the dubious prospects of foreign intervention. 3. Although the King reluctantly accepted the new constitution (1791), he could not accept all the reforms, particularly those which hurt the Church. The royal Flight to Varennes (French: Fuite à Varennes) during the night of 20–21 June 1791 was a significant episode in the French Revolution in which King Louis XVI of France, his queen Marie Antoinette, and their immediate family unsuccessfully attempted to escape from Paris in order to initiate a counter-revolution at the head of loyal troops under royalist officers concentrated at Montmédy near the frontier. After they returned, the National Constituent Assembly agreed that the king could be restored to power if he agreed to the constitution. Why Did The King Make The Flight To Varennes? [11], Whether De Bouillé's army would have been numerous or reliable enough to change the direction of the revolution and preserve the monarchy can never be known.[14][15]. The king's failed escape attempt alarmed many other European monarchs, who feared that the revolutionary fervor would spread to their countries and result in instability outside France. [10] The escape was largely planned by the queen's favourite, the Swedish Count Axel von Fersen and the Baron de Breteuil, who had garnered support from Swedish King Gustavus III. Add to folder. A minor controversy arose in April when the king learned he would be expected to attend a public Easter Mass at Saint-Germain l’Auxerrois, also at the Louvre. Hébert on the flight to Varennes (1791). Since then, provocative writings inciting violence against me and my family have been published, which have remained unpunished. Privately, the king refused to attend any Mass given by a constitutional priest, believing this might endanger his immortal soul. By Marisa Linton, published 9th February 2017. The flight to Varennes was a turning point in the French Revolution because it exposed the untrustworthiness of the king and the unworkability of the newly implemented constitution. Some went further and insisted the king be put on trial for treason against the constitution. The king's brother also fled on the same night, by a different route. It also forms one of the best known and most admired portions of Carlyle's history of the Revolution. Why was the flight to Varennes important? Publisher: Alpha History Factors behind the king’s decision to flee included his lack of faith in the revolution and the Constitution of 1791, his personal religious beliefs, advice from Mirabeau and urging from his wife. Some accused high ranking city officials, including Bailly and Lafayette, of assisting the royal family to escape. He also mistakenly believed that he enjoyed particular favor with the peasantry and other commoners. What was the significance of the flight to Varennes? This incident only confirmed what most already suspected: that the king and his family were virtual prisoners in Paris. While the Assembly had every intention of creating a limited or constitutional monarchy, after June 1791, such an idea became increasingly suspect. The realization that the king had effectually repudiated the revolutionary reforms made up to that point came as a shock to people who had seen him as a well-intentioned monarch who governed as a manifestation of God's will. Search. The credibility of the king as a constitutional monarch had been seriously undermined by the escape attempt. The King gradually lost more and more power over the two following years. He instead secretly committed himself to a policy of covert counter-revolution. Email; Share; Tweet; Marisa Linton takes us on a coach journey across France. Seeking to avoid this, the king and his family planned to leave Paris on April 18th and spend Easter at their summer house at Saint-Cloud. Authors: Jennifer Llewellyn, Steve Thompson Back in Paris, the king’s escape was discovered around the time he was passing Châlons. URL: https://alphahistory.com/frenchrevolution/flight-to-varennes/ The royal family then made plans to escape. The midnight escape of the disguised royal family out a forgotten back door of Republicanism quickly evolved from being merely a subject of coffeehouse debate to the dominant ideal of revolutionary leaders.[3]. Bourgeois dreams of a harmonious constitutional monarchy were shattered; the progress made since 1789 appeared to have been lost. Copyright: The content on this page may not be republished without our express permission. The relocation seemed to have emotionally paralyzed the king, which left many important decisions to the politically untrained queen. pp. Flight to Varennes: Fuite à Varennes The King gradually lost more and more power over the two following years. Students may jump on the idea of the king being a ‘traitor’ it’s important at this point to remind … For this religious man, the Civil Constitution of the Clergy was the last straw. Prodded by the queen, Louis committed himself and his family to a disastrous attempt of escape from the capital to the easter… Louis XVI's indecisive response was one of the causes of the forcible transfer of the royal family from the Palace of Versailles to the Tuileries in Paris on 6 October 1789 after The Women's March on Versailles. The troops under his command included two Swiss and four German mercenary regiments who were perceived as being more reliable in a time of general political unrest than their French counterparts. If any king could have coped with the French Revolution it was not Louis XVI. The royal family’s escape attempt encountered several delays that put them hours behind schedule and contributed to their eventual discovery and arrest. Instead, he regularly attended Mass at a small chapel in the Louvre, where the service was performed by refractory or non-juring priests. He was 19 when he succeeded his grandfather, Louis XV, in 1774. In a letter drafted for presentation to the Diet of the Swiss Cantons at Zurich, the royalist baron de Breteuil stated that "His Majesty desires to have such imposing forces at his disposition, that even the most audacious rebels will have no other option than to submit". A note left by Louis XVI after fleeing Paris (1791) On the night of the 20 th to the 21 st of June 1791 Louis XVI and his wife Marie Antoinette and their children made an attempt to escape the Revolutionary forces of Paris. If the monarchy fell, Mirabeau believed, the revolution would collapse into leaderless anarchy. While stopped there they were identified by the local postmaster, Jean-Baptiste Drouet who, according to legend, recognised the king from his portrait on a coin or assignat. Outside Paris, the king and his family would meet a platoon of Hussars and make their way to Montmedy, a fortress in north-eastern France manned by loyal soldiers. De Bouille on his role in the flight to Varennes (1791) Once underway, the king’s entourage was forced to take a longer route out of Paris than originally planned. Already all valets were in attendance, wearing their usual court dress. Significant civil and political events by year, Richard Cavendish, page 8, "History Today", June 2016, Richard Cavendish, p. 8, "History Today", June 2016, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick, History of the French Revolution from 1789 to 1814, Déclaration de Louis XVI à tous les Français, à sa sortie de Paris, The Flight to Varennes • Memoir by the Duchesse d'Angoulême, Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany, Frederick Louis, Prince of Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen, François Alexandre Frédéric, duc de la Rochefoucauld-Liancourt, Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau, Alexandre-Théodore-Victor, comte de Lameth, Louis Michel le Peletier de Saint-Fargeau, List of people associated with the French Revolution, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Flight_to_Varennes&oldid=998701359, Articles needing additional references from May 2019, All articles needing additional references, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 6 January 2021, at 16:58. This event was a turning point in the revolution because it exposed the untrustworthiness of the king and the unworkability of the newly devised constitution. What is more certain is that Fersen was operating with the financial backing of Sweden’s Gustav III, who wanted the French royal family to escape the dangers of Paris. Meanwhile, the king’s coach proceeded on its journey and reached Sainte-Menehould, around 50 miles (80 kilometres) from Montmedy. The king’s failed attempt to escape Paris was dubbed the flight to Varennes (something of a misnomer given the real objective of his flight was Montmedy). The king had attempted to flee the revolution and could no longer be trusted. Title: “The flight to Varennes” I was perplexed by what I saw.”. Flight to Varennes: Featured in Macworld - one of the best history sites on the web. The flight to Varennes refers to the royal family's failed attempt to escape Paris in June 1791. A member of the Assembly had to in fact protect Marie Antoinette from the crowds. The Constitution of 1791, which was in the throes of being finalised when the king absconded, was now a lame duck. The plan, hatched by Count Axel von Fersen and supported by Marie Antoinette, was to travel by coach to Montmedy, a fortress near the German border garrisoned by royalist troops. The king's brothers and the principal Royalists strongly advised the king to leave Paris, the center of the storm, and join the émigrés and the armies they were raising, so as to return to his capital with their aid and dictate terms instead of having them forced upon him. The flight to Varennes, though minor in itself, signed the death warrant for bourgeois dreams of a French constitutional monarchy. More Information . Marie Antoinette left the Tuileries as planned but spent several minutes wandering lost in the streets outside, before eventually locating her carriage. "France: History". French Revolution memory quiz – events 1789-91, French Revolution memory quiz – events 1792-95, French Revolution memory quiz – events to 1788, French Revolution memory quiz – terms (I), French Revolution memory quiz – terms (II), French Revolution memory quiz – terms (III), Princess Marie-Thérèse’s account of the flight to Varennes (1791), A note left by Louis XVI after fleeing Paris (1791), Louis XVI on his motives for the flight to Varennes (1791), De Bouille on his role in the flight to Varennes (1791), The Assembly responds to the flight to Varennes (1791), Henri Grégoire on the flight to Varennes (1791). To avoid this, Mirabeau became a virtual double agent. They were prevented from leaving the Tuileries by a hostile mob, which trapped their carriage in a courtyard for two hours, hurling insults and projectiles. This French Revolution site contains articles, sources and perspectives on events in France between 1781 and 1795. Despite a series of blunders, the royal entourage escaped Paris and travelled to within 30 kilometres of its goal. The Flight to Varennes. For more information on usage, please refer to our Terms of Use. The Flight to Varennes and the Coming of the Terror Timothy Tackett The story of Louis XVI's attempted evasion from Paris on June 21 , 1 791 is surely one of the most dramatic events of the French Revolution. At the Estates-General two years earlier, Mirabeau had seemed an arch-radical, defiantly proclaiming that the National Assembly would only disperse at the point of bayonets. Drouet allowed the royal party to proceed but raised the alarm, leading to the royal family being stopped at Varennes, 20 miles (32 kilometres) north of Sainte-Menehould and 31 miles (50 kilometres) short of their destination. The flight to Varennes proved to monarchical Europe that, despite protestations to the contrary, the French king did not approve the course of the revolution and in fact had become a prisoner of it. Convicted, Louis was sent to the guillotine on 21 January 1793. But after Varennes, the mistrust built up by his long record of apparent ambivalence burst out into widespread demands from the populace of the capital and a number of radical publicists for the king to be dethroned.” While he distrusted Mirabeau, the king seemed to accept his advice about retreating from Paris. He was 19 when he succeeded his grandfather, Louis XV, in 1774. Citation information The royal family was returned to Paris and reinstalled at the Tuileries Palace, this time under a more visible guard. In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). At the same time, he encouraged the Girondin faction in the Legislative Assembly in their policy of war with Austria, in the expectation that a French military disaster would pave the way for the restoration of his royal authority. Add. The arrest of Louis XVI. A detailed document entitled Declaration to the French People prepared by Louis for presentation to the National Assembly and left behind in the Tuileries indicates that his personal goal was a return to the concessions and compromises contained in the declaration of the Third Estate on 23 June 1789, immediately prior to the outbreak of violence in Paris and the storming of the Bastille. The escape was planned over the preceding month by Count Axel von Fersen, a Swedish general and favourite of Marie Antoinette, who planned to sneak the royal family out of Paris to the loyalist stronghold at Montmedy, in north-eastern France. [13] Seven detachments of cavalry posted along the intended route had been withdrawn or neutralized by suspicious crowds before the large and slow moving vehicle being used by the royal party had reached them. A number of factors caused Louis XVI to lose whatever faith he had in the revolution. Fersen, a regular visitor to France from the late 1770s, had become a favourite of Marie Antoinette. This would have involved the splitting up of the royal family, however, thus Louis and Marie-Antoinette decided on the use of a heavy and conspicuous coach drawn by six horses. It seemed as if the king had merely returned from a hunting expedition, and everyone was assisting him with his toilet. A historian’s view: This incident was a turning point after which popular hostility towards the French monarchy as an institution, as well as towards the king and queen as individuals, became much more pronounced. Richard Cavendish | Published in History Today Volume 66 Issue 6 June 2016.

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