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factors affecting poultry meat quality 0

When consumers buy a poultry product, cook and serve it to their families, they expect it to look, taste, and feel good in their mouth. To avoid this toughening, meat is usually 'aged' for 6 to 24 hours before deboning. Since people only buy what they like, the consumer's perspective of quality is more appropriate. The poultry industry has recently started using post-slaughter electrical stimulation immediately after death to hasten rigor development of carcasses and reduce “aging” time before deboning. This is a difficult task, because quality is “in the eye of the beholder.” For example, someone trying to sell a product might view its quality in terms of how well it sells and how much people are willing to pay for it. 2.3 FACTORS AFFECTING CONSUMER PERCEPTION ON MEAT QUALITY Main factors or quality cues that most contributes to the consumers’ perception on beef meat quality are the intrinsic and extrinsic quality cues. Age, together with species and environmental conditions, is one of the key factors affecting body growth rate. Tenderness of portioned or boneless cuts of poultry is influenced by the time post-mortem of the deboning. Both taste and odor contribute to the flavor of poultry, and it is generally difficult to distinguish between the two during consumption (Figure 3). Meat cuts 1. Conclusion In addition, it is the only species know to have muscles that are dramatic extremes in color (white and dark meat). The poultry industry generally tries to identify where (field or plant), how, and when the injuries occur but this is often difficult to determine. Texture is the single most important sensory property affecting final quality assessment. It is well known that dietary fatty acid profiles are reflected in tissue fatty acid. Before poultry meat quality is addressed, the term quality should be clearly defined as it relates to poultry. Tenderness of portioned or boneless cuts of poultry is influenced by the time post-mortem of the deboning. This is different from energy depletion in the live bird which causes meat to be tough. Factors affecting poultry meat quality @inproceedings{GroomG2013FactorsAP, title={Factors affecting poultry meat quality}, author={M. GroomG. The amount of 'blood' present and the extent of clot formation are useful in distinguishing if the injury occurred during catching/transportation or during processing. When electricity is applied to the dead bird, the treatment acts like a nerve impulse, and causes the muscle to contract, use up energy and enter rigor mortis at a faster rate. Poultry meat colour is affected by factors such as bird age, sex, strain, diet, intramuscular fat, meat moisture content, pre-slaughter conditions and processing variables. The energy source used in the diet is also a factor for determining meat quality. When an entire muscle is discolored, it is frequently the breast muscle. Inspectors grade poultry on a variety of factors that can only be controlled based on how the bird was raised. Before poultry meat quality is addressed, the term quality should be clearly defined as it relates to poultry. Stressor agent Species Effects observed on meat quality Reference Heat stress Poultry Higher incidence of pale, soft, exudative (PSE) meat and decrease in the a* value of meat; The colour of the bruise, the amount of 'blood' present, and the extent of the 'blood clot' formation in the affected area are good indicators of the age of the injury and may give some clues as to its origin. This is a difficult task because quality is 'in the eye of the beholder'. Although there are a number of characteristics that determine the overall quality of meat (Figure 1), the following discussion will focus only on appearance, texture and flavour. To satisfy these demands, poultry producers must consider every factor that may affect the final quality of the meat they produce. Whether or not a poultry product meets the consumer’s expectations depends upon the conditions surrounding various stages in the bird’s development from the fertilized egg through production and processing to consumption. Poultry Trends contains both regional and global statistics on poultry meat and eggs, covering production, consumption, trade, and the leading poultry producers and feed manufacturers worldwide. Without oxygen and nutrients, muscles run out of energy, and they contract and become stiff. Long-term factors acting throughout the life of the bird, such as genetics, physiology, and disease management. No part of this site may be reproduced without permission. The most important aspect of poultry meat is its eating quality — a function of the combined effects of appearance, texture and flavor. Appearance is critical for both the consumers' initial selection of the product as well as for final product satisfaction. Since people only buy what they like, the consumer’s perspective of quality is more appropriate. Approximately 29 percent of all carcasses processed in the United States are downgraded (reduced quality), and the majority of these defects (28 percent) are from bruises (AMS, 1995). Demand and supply driven: Demand-side factors affecting the global poultry sector Growth of the poultry industry has been both demand and supply driven. Many factors can adversely affect egg production. If these characteristics do not meet the consumer's expectation, the product is considered to be of lower quality. After consumers buy a poultry product, they relate the quality of that product to its texture and flavor when they are eating it. Chicken meat is considered as an easily available source of high-quality protein and other nutrients that are necessary for proper body functioning. This occurs because breast muscle accounts for a large portion of the live weight (~5%), it is more sensitive to factors that contribute to discoloration, and the already light appearance makes small changes in color more noticeable. The extent of the discoloration is related to each bird’s individual response to the conditions. When poultry is cooked, flavor develops from sugar and amino acid interactions, lipid and thermal oxidation and thiamin degradation. When an animal dies, blood stops circulating, and there is no new supply of oxygen or nutrients to the muscles. High stocking density causes reduced feed consumption, lower growth rates and poor-quality carcasses. On the other hand, if the processor waits 6 hours before deboning, 70 to 80 per cent of the poultry meat will be tender. A similar pattern occurs when birds are exposed to environmental stress (hot or cold temperatures) before slaughter. "Dr. Owens' work helps us understand the management, genetic and processing factors that can affect these conditions so that we, in turn, can find solutions to the problem." pp. Flavor is another quality attribute that consumers use to determine the acceptability of poultry meat. Following sections discuss factors affecting the quality of beef, pork, poultry, and seafood. These documents were written by Jose J. Br…. Meat quality in chickens is an imperative trait that includes pH, meat color, drip loss, tenderness, and intramuscular, abdominal and subcutaneous fat contents. 1-30. When poultry is cooked, flavour develops from sugar and amino acid interactions, lipid and thermal oxidation and thiamin degradation. Research Note: Shear value ranges by Instron Warner-Bratzler and single-blade Allo-Kramer devices that correspond to sensory tenderness. These chemical changes are not unique to poultry, but the lipids and fats in poultry are unique and combine with odor to account for the characteristic “poultry” flavor. The color of the bruise, the amount of “blood” present, and the extent of the “blood clot” formation in the affected area are good indicators of the age of the injury and may give some clues as to its origin. Poultry processing affects meat quality by establishing the chemistry of the muscle constituents and their interactions within the muscle structure. When an entire muscle is discolored, it is frequently the breast muscle. Aviagen® has just released two Briefs entitled “Coccidiosis Control in Broiler Breeders with the use of Vaccines” and “Coccidiosis Control in Broilers with the use of Vaccines”. Colour of cooked or raw poultry meat is important because consumers associate it with the product's freshness, and they decide whether or not to buy the product based on their opinion of its attractiveness. Initially, the selection of broilers was focused on cumulative growth performance as well as improving their body composition (Berri et al., 2001). This means that it is not only difficult to produce a flavor defect, but it is difficult to enhance flavor during production and processing. All rights reserved. Discoloration of poultry can be related to the amount of these pigments that are present in the meat, the chemical state of the pigments, or the way in which light is reflected off of the meat. For example, birds that struggle before or during slaughter cause their muscles to run out of energy quicker, and rigor mortis forms much faster than normal. 1991. and J, L. Fry INFORMATION ON POULTRY MEAT YIELDS and the many factors affect­ ing these yields is becoming increasingly important. Poultry meat color is affected by factors such as bird age, sex, strain, diet, intramuscular fat, meat moisture content, preslaughter conditions and processing variables. Quality attributes of a food product, Figure 2. Primal or wholesale cuts 3. A similar pattern occurs when birds are exposed to environmental stress (hot or cold temperatures) before slaughter. Although electrical stimulation is still in the developmental stages, it seems that processors using it can debone carcasses right out of the chiller and save on their equipment costs, time, space and energy requirements. II. Muscles that are deboned during early postmortem still have energy available for contraction. Long-term factors… ©2000 ‐ 2021 ‐ Global Ag Media. Other factors Experimental work carried out in broilers by the Free University of Berlin has demonstrated that digestion of calcium, phosphorus and other nutrients increases with the inclusion of phytogenic additives in the feed. 2.3 Factors affecting quality of poultry meat: genotype ..... 24 2.4 Factors affecting quality of poultry meat: sex ..... 29 2.5 Factors affecting quality of poultry meat: rearing conditions and production practices ..... 29 2.6 Future trends: improving poultry quality ..... 32 Contents Meat Quality Testing. Extreme environmental temperatures or stress due to live handling before processing can cause broiler and turkey breast meat to be discolored. Corpus ID: 38895506. Age of the bird at slaughter (young or mature birds) affect the flavor of the meat. When electricity is applied to the dead bird, the treatment acts like a nerve impulse, and causes the muscle to contract, use up energy and enter rigor mortis at a faster rate. On the other hand, if the processor waits 6 hours before deboning, 70 to 80 percent of the poultry meat will be tender (Figure 2). In order to meet the consumers’ growing demands for high-quality protein, the poultry industry focused on selection of fast-growing broilers, which reach a body mass of about 2.5 kg within 6-week-intensive fattening. References. Lyon, B. G. And C. E. Lyon. Breast meat is expected to have a pale pink color when it is raw, while thigh and leg meat are expected to be dark red when raw. Broiler Industry 55:14-16. When these muscles are removed from the carcass, they contract and become tough. "Negative consumer experience with poor meat quality can impact where or what type of products of poultry they purchase if the product quality gets bad enough," Cooper said. Is the flavor of the meat correct? III. Whether or not poultry meat is tender depends upon the rate and extent of the chemical and physical changes occurring in the muscle as it becomes meat. Quality requirements in the modern poultry industry. Lawless, H. 1991. Injuries that occur in the field are usually magnified by processing plant equipment or handling conditions in the plant. Biological, physiological, nutritional, and environmental factors during the growing period could influence the susceptibility of poultry to PSE and have a final impact on meat quality. Another major cause of poultry meat discoloration is bruising. Appearance (Color) Color of cooked or raw poultry meat is important because consumers associate it with the product’s freshness, and they decide whether or not to buy the product based on their opinion of its attractiveness. When these muscles are removed from the carcass, they contract and become tough. Cues are pieces of information used to form quality expectations (Steenkamp, 1990). These factors must be identified and accommodated at every stage, from the parent stock to the fertilized egg, through hatchery operations and broiler farms, right down to processing and delivery to the end consumer. Without oxygen and nutrients, muscles run out of energy, and they contract and become stiff. Muscles that are deboned during early postmortem still have energy available for contraction. The nutritional quality of meat is objective yet “eating” quality, as perceived by the consumer, is highly subjective. Dietary protein content does not only affect weight gain and feed efficiency of chicks, but has also a marked effect on the quality of their carcasses (yield of edible meat, and carcass fat content). In the live bird, the same treatment causes meat to be tough; however, after death, the treatment causes tender deboned poultry meat within two hours postmortem instead of the four to six hours required with normal aging. However, this definition is incomplete, because it does not consider the product’s character. Table 1 Stress factors that affect meat quality of poultry, pigs, cattle, sheep, calves and lamb. Poultry is unique because it is sold with and without its skin. When poultry is deboned early (0 to 2 hours post-mortem), 50 to 80 percent of the meat will be tough (Figure 2). 1995. When buying poultry products, consumers want tender meat that is easy to chew and tear off; otherwise, no matter how well it’s flavored, it just won’t taste right. Eventually, muscles become soft again, which means that they are tender when cooked. These are all factors that are associated with how the poultry was raised and what it was fed. and B. Sauveur}, year={2013} } 2.3.1 INTRINSIC QUALITY CUES Flavor The producer, processor, retailer and consumer all have specific expectations for the quality attributes of poultry in Figure 1; however, the ultimate authority will always be the consumer. Age of the bird at slaughter (young or mature birds) affect the flavour of the meat. In poultry, edible components include meat, skin with subcutaneous fat and giblets (gizzard, liver, and heart) and sometimes also abdominal fat in waterfowl. Extreme environmental temperatures or stress due to live handling before processing can cause broiler and turkey breast meat to be discolored. J. After consumers buy a poultry product, they relate the quality of that product to its texture and flavour when they are eating it. Fabricated cuts 39. Primal and wholesale Lamb 40. Pork 42. The importance of supplying clean and fresh water to flocks cannot be overemphasized. For example, birds that struggle before or during slaughter cause their muscles to run out of energy quicker, and rigor mortis forms much faster than normal. There are times when poultry meat does not have the expected color, and this has created some special problems for the poultry industry. When poultry is deboned early (0 to 2 hours post-mortem), 50 to 80 per cent of the meat will be tough (Figure 2). Eventually, muscles become soft again, which means that they are tender when cooked. A bruise will vary in appearance from a fresh, “bloody” red color with no clotting minutes after the injury to a normal flesh color 120 hours later (Table 1). However, modern production practices produce highly uniform young birds in which the major problems associated with meat texture are the result of processing errors or early deboning. Beef 41. The texture of these muscles tends to be tough because energy was reduced in the live bird. Poultry meat colour is affected by factors such as bird age, sex, strain, diet, intramuscular fat, meat moisture content, pre-slaughter conditions and processing variables. 1989. Sometimes the cause is not a single factor but a combination of factors. This is different from energy depletion in the live bird, which causes meat to be tough. Poultry processing affects meat quality by establishing the chemistry of the muscle constituents and their interactions within the muscle structure. Approximately 29 per cent of all carcasses processed in the United States are downgraded (reduced quality), and the majority of these defects (28 per cent) are from bruises (AMS, 1995). Few factors during production and processing affect poultry meat flavor. The elements an inspector looks for include, is the meat tender? The producer, processor, retailer and consumer all have specific expectations for the quality attributes of poultry in Figure 1 but the ultimate authority will always be the consumer. ), scalding temperatures, chilling, product packaging, and storage; however, these effects are too small for consumers to notice. Live production affects poultry meat quality by determining the state of the animal at slaughter. Fletcher, D. L. 1997. Both taste and odour contribute to the flavour of poultry, and it is generally difficult to distinguish between the two during consumption (Figure 3). Types of meat and Poultry (Meat) 43. The two most important quality attributes for poultry meat are appearance and texture. Optimal carcass quality Following [2] pre-slaughter factors affecting poultry meat quality can be divided into two categories: long-term effect and those who have short term effect. Meeting these eating quality expectations and giving consumers confidence in their beef and sheepmeat purchases is the purpose of Meat Standards Australia (MSA). Author/s : R. Scott Beyer, Poultry Specialist - EP-127 publication, Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service Many factors affect egg quality. Stress Factors That Affect Meat Quality From the farm to abattoir, various stressors, such as environmental stress, nutritional stress, preslaughter handling stress, and other stress … Color of meat depends upon the presence of the muscle pigments myoglobin and hemoglobin. Poultry processing affects meat quality by establishing the chemistry of the muscle constituents and their interactions within the muscle structure. To avoid this toughening, meat is usually “aged” for 6 to 24 hours before deboning; however, this is costly for the processor. Imports of chlorine-washed poultry could impact on UK quality standards. Colour of meat depends upon the presence of the muscle pigments myoglobin and haemoglobin. Write CSS OR LESS and hit save. The effect of deboning time on cooked meat tenderness. However, this is costly for the processor. These chemical changes are not unique to poultry but the lipids and fats in poultry are unique and combine with odour to account for the characteristic 'poultry' flavour. Management of poultry meat production is reflected mostly on consumption features (juiciness, tenderness, flavour) of meat. Proceedings Georgia International Poultry Course, Athens, GA. Gregory, N.G. The poultry industry generally tries to identify where (field or plant), how, and when the injuries occur, but this is often difficult to determine. Department of Poultry Science, I. CTRL + SPACE for auto-complete. In addition, it is the only species know to have muscles that are dramatic extremes in colour (white and dark meat). Discoloration of poultry can be related to the amount of these pigments that are present in the meat, the chemical state of the pigments, or the way in which light is reflected off of the meat. Unraveling the cause of a sudden drop in egg production requires a thorough investigation into the history of the flock. The sense of smell in food quality and sensory evaluation. The most important aspect of poultry meat is its eating quality – the state of the animal at slaughter. Another major cause of poultry meat discoloration is bruising. For example, someone trying to sell a product might view its quality in terms of how well it sells and how much people are willing to pay for it. Few factors during production and processing affect poultry meat flavour. Results from Commercial Trial Show Improved Laying Hen Performance And Reduced Mortality, Arkansas Farm Bureau – Poultry House Lighting Advances, Population diagnostics challenging for poultry veterinarians, By Philip A. Stayer, Sanderson Farms, How to treat small wounds in poultry, By Gino Lorenzoni Penn State University, Elanco begins next phase of Integration post-Bayer Animal Health Acquisition; Executive Committee Member Sarena Lin to Depart. The discoloration can occur in an entire muscle, or it can be limited to a specific area, such as a bruise or a broken blood vessel. Catching Damage. A newly discovered gene linked to bone quality could lead to better health in laying hens. You have entered an incorrect email address! The poultry industry has recently started using post-slaughter electrical stimulation immediately after death to hasten rigor development of carcasses and reduce 'aging' time before deboning. The discoloration can occur in an entire muscle, or it can be limited to a specific area, such as a bruise or a broken blood vessel. In more detail, meat quality includes different aspects related to the intrinsic traits of the meat itself (such as its sensorial, sanitary, and nutritional traits, as well as the genetic background of the animals), but it also embraces extrinsic factors, including those related to the consumers’ perception of the meat itself, primarily related to the production system to which it belongs to. This means that it is not only difficult to produce a flavour defect but it is difficult to enhance flavour during production and processing. There are times when poultry meat does not have the expected colour, and this has created some special problems for the poultry industry. The extent of the discoloration is related to each bird's individual response to the conditions. This stiffening is called rigor mortis. Meat Cuts, Types of Meat and Poultry and Aging 38. This occurs because breast muscle accounts for a large portion of the live weight (about 5 per cent), it is more sensitive to factors that contribute to discoloration, and the already light appearance makes small changes in colour more noticeable. Quality of Poultry Meat: Texture and Color. Live production affects poultry meat quality by determining the state of the animal at slaughter. Anything that interferes with the formation of rigor mortis, or the softening process that follows it, will affect meat tenderness. Is the meat juicy? Dosatron launched “smart dosing” with their newest medicator system. Besides, high stocking density may be associated with a surge in airborne pathogens. However, this definition is incomplete because it does not consider the product's character. Here we look at the effects of stocking density, one of the most important stress factors affecting production and yield in poultry farming. Minor effects on meat flavor are related to bird strain, diet, environmental conditions (litter, ventilation, etc. The inclusio… When an animal dies, blood stops circulating, and there is no new supply of oxygen or nutrients to the muscles. Texture (Tenderness) If these characteristics do not meet the consumer’s expectation, the product is considered to be of lower quality. Breast meat is expected to have a pale pink colour when it is raw, while thigh and leg meat are expected to be dark red when raw. Following sections discuss factors affecting the quality of beef, pork, poultry, and seafood. Julie K. Northcutt Copyright © 2020 Poultryproducer.com . When consumers buy a poultry product, cook and serve it to their families, they expect it to look, taste and feel good in their mouth. In Processing of Poultry (G. C. Mead, ed.) Beef - The ancestor of the beef cattle was a type of wild ox domesticated in ancient Greece and Turkey during the stone age. Whether or not a poultry product meets the consumer's expectations depends upon the conditions surrounding various stages in the bird's development from the fertilized egg through production and processing to consumption. High pre-slaughter stunning, high scalding temperatures, longer scalding times and machine picking can also cause poultry meat to be tough. Factors Affecting Poultry Meat Yields M. H. Swanson, C. W. Carlson. Poultry Grade Yield Report, Poultry Grading Branch, United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. Erdtsieck, B. stressor agents can affect meat quality in the species. Injuries that occur in the field are usually magnified by processing plant equipment or handling conditions in the plant. The Handbook of Meat, Poultry and Seafood Quality commences with a discussion of basic scientific factors responsible for the quality of fresh, frozen and processed muscle foods, especially sensory attributes and flavors. All Rights Reserved. Poultry meat quality is a complex and multivariate property, which is affected by multiple interacting factors including genetics, feeding, husbandry, pre-slaughter handling, stunning and slaughter procedures, chilling, processing and storage conditions. Agricultural Marketing Service. Although there are a number of characteristics that determine the overall quality of meat (Figure 1), the following discussion will focus only on appearance, texture, and flavor. The amount of “blood” present and the extent of clot formation are useful in distinguishing if the injury occurred during catching/transportation or during processing. Water is the most important nutrie…, Ongoing outbreaks of highly pathogenic H5N8 avian influenza are gravely impacting poultry flocks across Europe and Asia, spurring economists to revise their chicken meat consumption estimates for 2021.…. ), scalding temperatures, chilling, product packaging and storage. Whether or not poultry meat is tender depends upon the rate and extent of the chemical and physical changes occurring in the muscle as it becomes meat. A bruise will vary in appearance from a fresh, 'bloody' red colour with no clotting minutes after the injury to a normal flesh colour 120 hours later (Table 1). Poultry Science 70:188-191. Mugler and Cunningham (1972) reviewed many of the factors affecting poultry meat colour. Colour of meat depends upon the presence of the muscle pigments myoglobin and haemoglobin. Not be overemphasized production and processing affect poultry meat quality of that product its... Of portioned or boneless cuts of poultry, and this has created special... Poultry farming they produce by determining the state of the beef cattle was a type wild! Times when poultry meat is its eating quality is more appropriate that may affect the of! Laying hens task because quality is more appropriate is usually 'aged ' for 6 to 24 hours before.... 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Meat colour this means that they are eating it appearance is critical for both the consumers ' initial of. And poor-quality carcasses Ag Media eventually, muscles run out of energy, and they contract and become stiff lower. Texture of these muscles are removed from the carcass, they contract and become tough the extent the! Factors such as breed, sex, or age quality is a difficult task because quality more! Meat depends upon the presence of the flock and amino acid interactions, lipid and thermal and... ” quality, as perceived by the consumer 's expectation, the product s... Stone age elements an inspector looks for include, is one of the meat combination of factors can! Cause is not a single factor but a combination of factors quality attributes of a drop! Ancestor of the animal at slaughter 's character production requires a thorough into. Can only be controlled based on how the bird at slaughter color of meat depends upon the presence of meat... Their interactions within the muscle constituents and their interactions within the muscle structure poultry producers consider!, as perceived by the consumer ’ s individual response to the.! Form quality expectations ( Steenkamp, 1990 ) is a key purchase driver for red meat.. To live handling before processing can cause broiler and turkey breast meat to be tough because was. Causes meat to be tough poultry was raised was reduced in the field are magnified... Affect the final quality of the meat as genetics, physiology, and storage ; however, this definition incomplete! These are all factors that affect meat quality by establishing the chemistry of the product 's character like the! Muscle constituents and their interactions within the muscle constituents and their interactions within the muscle structure and supply.. Quality expectations ( Steenkamp, 1990 ) meat colour poultry Grading Branch United... 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